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姚期智

姚期智,1946年出生于中国上海,计算机学家,2000年图灵奖获得者,美国国家科学院院士、美国艺术与科学学院院士、中国科学院院士,清华大学高等研究中心教授,香港中文大学博文讲座教授,清华大学-麻省理工学院-香港中文大学理论计算机科学研究中心主任 ,清华大学交叉信息研究院院长 ,清华大学金融科技研究院管委会主任。

1967年姚期智获得台湾大学物理学士学位;1972年获得哈佛大学物理博士学位;1975年获得伊利诺依大学计算机科学博士学位,之后先后在美国麻省理工学院数学系、斯坦福大学计算机系、加州大学伯克利分校计算机系任助理教授、教授;1998年当选为美国科学院院士;2000年获得图灵奖,是唯一的华人学者(截止到2017年) ;2004年起在清华大学任全职教授,同年当选为中国科学院外籍院士;2005年出任香港中文大学博文讲座教授;2017年2月,姚期智教授放弃美国国籍成为中国公民,正式转为中国科学院院士,归属于信息技术科学部。

姚期智的研究方向包括计算理论及其在密码学和量子计算中的应用,最先提出量子通信复杂性,提出分布式量子计算模式,后来成为分布式量子算法和量子通讯协议安全性的基础。

1946年12月24日,姚期智出生于中国上海,祖籍湖北省孝感市孝昌县。

1967年,获得台湾大学物理学士学位,之后赴美留学,进入哈佛大学,师从格拉肖(Sheldon Lee Glashow,1979年诺贝尔物理学奖得主)。1972年,获得美国哈佛大学物理博士学位。

1973年,26岁的姚期智放弃物理学,转而投向计算机技术,于是进入伊利诺大学攻读博士学位。1975年,获得美国伊利诺依大学计算机科学博士学位。

1975年至1986年,先后在美国麻省理工学院数学系、斯坦福大学计算机系、加利福尼亚大学伯克利分校计算机系,普林斯顿大学等著名学府担任教授。

1986年至2004年,在普林斯顿大学计算机科学系担任Wiliam and Edna Macaleer工程与应用科学教授。

1998年,被选为美国科学院院士。2000年,被选为美国科学与艺术学院院士。2004年,当选为中国科学院外籍院士。

2004年,57岁的姚期智辞去了普林斯顿大学终身教职,卖掉了在美国的房子,正式加盟清华大学高等研究中心,担任全职教授。

2005年1月20日,姚期智出任香港中文大学博文讲座教授,这是香港中文大学特设的大学讲席 。3月16日,获得北京永久居留权的“绿卡” 。同年,由姚期智主导并与微软亚洲研究院共同合作的“软件科学实验班”(后更名为“计算机科学实验班”,也被称为“姚班”)在清华成立,并先后招收大一、大二两班学生。

2007年3月29日,姚期智领导成立了清华大学理论计算机科学研究中心 。4月,理论计算机科学研究中心主办第十届国际公钥密码学会议,姚期智担任大会主席,这是该会议首次在中国召开。

2010年6月,清华大学-麻省理工学院-香港中文大学理论计算机科学研究中心正式成立,姚期智教授担任主任 。

2017年2月,放弃外国国籍成为中国公民,正式转为中国科学院院士,加入中国科学院信息技术科学部 。11月,加盟中国人工智能企业旷视科技Face++,出任旷视学术委员会首席顾问,推动产学研的本质创新 。12月,任清华大学金融科技研究院管委会主任。

姚期智的研究方向包括计算理论及其在密码学和量子计算中的应用。在三大方面具有突出贡献:

(1)创建理论计算机科学的重要次领域:通讯复杂性和伪随机数生成计算理论;

(2)奠定现代密码学基础,在基于复杂性的密码学和安全形式化方法方面有根本性贡献;

(3)解决线路复杂性、计算几何、数据结构及量子计算等领域的开放性问题并建立全新典范。

1993年,姚期智最先提出量子通信复杂性,基本上完成了量子计算机的理论基础。1995年,提出分布式量子计算模式,后来成为分布式量子算法和量子通讯协议安全性的基础。因为对计算理论包括伪随机数生成、密码学与通信复杂度的突出贡献,美国计算机协会(ACM)也把2000年度的图灵奖授予他。

人物著作

"Divergences of Massive Yang-Mills Theories: Higher Groups",(with S. L. Glashow and J. Illiopoulos),Physical Review,D4 (1971),1918-1919.

2 "Standing Pion Waves in Superdense Matter",(with R. F. Sawyer),Physical Review,D7 (1973),1579-1586.

3 "An O (|E| log log |V|) Algorithm for Finding Minimum Spanning Trees",Information Processing Letters,4 (1975),21-23.

4 "Analysis of the Subtractive Algorithms for Greatest Common Divisors",(with D. E. Knuth),Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA,72 (1975),4720-4722.

5 "On Computing the Minima of Quadratic Forms",Proceedings of Seventh ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing,Albuquerque,New Mexico,May 1975,23-26.

6 "The Complexity of Non-uniform Random Number Generation",(with D. E. Knuth),in Algorithms and Complexity: New Directions and Recent Results,edited by J. F. Traub,Academic Press,1976,pp.357-428.

7 "On the Evaluation of Powers",SIAM J. on Computing,5 (1976),100-103.

8 "Resource Constrained Scheduling as Generalized Bin Packing",(with M. R. Garey,R. L. Graham and D. S. Johnson),J. of Combinatorial Theory,A21 (1976),257-298.

9 "Bounds on Merging Networks",(with F. F. Yao),Journal of ACM,23 (1976),566-571.

10 "Tiling with Incomparable Rectangles",(with E. M. Reingold and W. Sanders),Journal of Recreational Mathematics,8 (1976),112-119.

11 "A Combinatorial Optimization Problem Related to Data Set Allocation",(with C. K. Wong),Revue Francaise D'Automatique,Informatique,Recherche Operationnelle,Suppl. No. 5 (1976),83-96.

12 "On a Problem of Katona on Minimal Separation Systems",Discrete Mathematics,15 (1976),193-199.

13 "An Almost Optimal Algorithm for Unbounded Searching",(with J. Bentley),Information Processing Letters,5 (1976),82-87.

14 "On the Average Behavior of Set Merging Algorithms",Proceedings of Eighth ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing,Hershey,Pennsylvania,May 1976,192-195.

15 "The Complexity of Searching an Ordered Random Table",(with F. F. Yao),Proceedings of Seventeenth IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science,Houston,Texas,October 1976,222-227.

16 "Probabilistic Computations: Toward a Unified Measure of Complexity",Proceedings of Eighteenth IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science,Providence,Rhode Island,October 1977,222-227.

17 "On the Loop Switching Addressing Problem",SIAM J. on Computing,7 (1978),82-87.

18 "On Random 2-3 Trees",Acta Informatica,9 (1978),159-170.

19 "K + 1 Heads are Better than K",(with R. L. Rivest),Journal of ACM,25 (1978),337-340.

20 "Addition Chains with Multiplicative Cost",(with R. L. Graham and F. F. Yao),Discrete Mathematics,23 (1978),115-119.

21 "The Complexity of Pattern Matching for a Random String",SIAM J. on Computing,8 (1979),368-387.

22 "A Note on a Conjecture of Kam and Ullman Concerning Statistical Databases ",Information Processing Letters,9 (1979),48-50.

23 "Storing a Sparse Table",(with R. E. Tarjan),Communications of ACM,22 (1979),606-611.

24 "On Some Complexity Questions in Distributive Computing",Proceedings of Eleventh ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing,Atlanta,Georgia,May 1979,209-213.

25 "External Hashing Schemes for Collections of Data Structures",(with R. J. Lipton and A. L. Rosenberg),Journal of ACM,27 (1980),81-95.

26 "New Algorithms for Bin Packing",Journal of ACM,27 (1980),207-227.

27 "Information Bounds are Weak for the Shortest Distance Problem",(with R. L. Graham and F. F. Yao),Journal of ACM,27,(1980),428-444.

28 "A Stochastic Model of Bin Packing",(with E. G. Coffman,Jr.,M. Hofri and K. So),Information and Control,44 (1980),105-115.

29 "An Analysis of Shellsort",Journal of Algorithms,1 (1980),14-50.

30 "On the Polyhedral Decision Problem",(with R. L. Rivest),SIAM J. on Computing,9 (1980),343-347.

31 "Bounds on Selection Networks",SIAM J. on Computing,9 (1980),566-582.

32 "Some Monotonicity Properties of Partial Orders",(with R. L. Graham and F. F. Yao),SIAM J. on Algebraic and Discrete Methods,1 (1980),251-258.

33 "A Note on the Analysis of Extendible Hashing",Information Processing Letters,11 (1980),84-86.

34 "Optimal Expected-Time Algorithm for Closest-point Problems",(with J. L. Bentley and B. W. Weide),ACM Trans. on Math. Software,6 (1980),561-580.

35 "Efficient Searching via Partial Ordering",(with A. Borodin,L. J. Guibas and N. A. Lynch),Information Processing Letters,12 (1981),71-75.

36 "An Analysis of a Memory Allocation Scheme for Implementing Stacks",SIAM J. on Computing,10 (1981),398-403.

37 "Should Tables be Sorted?",Journal of ACM,28 (1981),615-628.

38 "A Lower Bound for Finding Convex Hulls",Journal of ACM,28 (1981),780-787.

39 "The Entropic Limitations on VLSI Computations",Proceedings of Thirteenth ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing,Milwaukee,Wisconsin,May 1981,308-311.

40 "Average-case Complexity of Selecting the k-th Best",(with F. F. Yao),SIAM J. on Computing,11 (1982),428-447.

41 "The Complexity of Finding Cycles in Periodic Functions",(with R. Sedgewick and T. G. Szymanski),SIAM J. on Computing,11 (1982),376-390.

42 "On the Time-Space Tradeoff for Sorting with Linear Queries",Theoretical Computer Science,19 (1982),203-218.

43 "Lower Bounds to Algebraic Decision Trees",(with J. M. Steele,Jr.),Journal of Algorithms,3 (1982),1-8.

44 "On Parallel Computation for the Knapsack Problem",Journal of ACM,29 (1982),898-903.

45 "On Constructing Minimum Spanning Trees in k-dimensional Spaces and Related Problems",SIAM J. on Computing,11 (1982),721-736.

46 "Equal Justice for Unequal Shares of the Cake",(with M. Klawe),Congressus Numerantium,36 (1982),247-260.

47 "Rearrangeable Networks with Limited Depth",(with N. Pippenger),SIAM J. on Algebraic and Discrete Methods,3 (1982),411-417.

48 "Space-Time Tradeoff for Answering Range Queries",Proceedings of Fourteenth ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing,San Francisco,California,May 1982,128-136.

49 "Theory and Applications of Trapdoor Functions",Proceedings of Twenty-third IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science,Chicago,Illinois,November 1982,80-91.

50 "Protocols for Secure Computations",Proceedings of Twenty-third IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science,Chicago,Illinois,November 1982,160-164.

51 "On the Security of Public Key Protocols",(with D. Dolev),IEEE Trans. on Information Theory,29 (1983),198-208.

52 "Strong Signature Schemes",(with S. Goldwasser and S. Micali),Proceedings of Fifteenth ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing,Boston,Massachusetts,April 1983,431-439

53 "Lower Bounds by Probabilistic Arguments",Proceedings of Twenty-fourth IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science,Tucson,Arizona,November 1983,420-428.

54 "Context-free Grammars and Random Number Generation",Proceedings of NATO Workshop on Combinatorial Algorithms on Words,Maratea,Italy,July 1984,edited by A. Apostolico and Z. Galil,Academic Press,357-361.

55 "Fault-tolerant Networks for Sorting",(with F. F. Yao),SIAM J. on Computing,14 (1985),120-128.

56 "On the Expected Performance of Path Compression",SIAM J. on Computing,14 (1985),129-133.

57 "On Optimal Arrangements of Keys with Double Hashing",Journal of Algorithms,6 (1985),253-264.

58 "Uniform Hashing is Optimal",Journal of the ACM,32 (1985),687-693.

59 "On the Complexity of Maintaining Partial Sums",SIAM J. on Computing,14 (1985),253-264.

60 "A General Approach to d-dimensional Geometric Queries",(with F. F. Yao),Proceedings of Seventeenth ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing,Providence,Rhode Island,May 1985,163-168.

61 "Separating the Polynomial-time Hierarchy by Oracles",Proceedings of Twenty-sixth IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science,Eugene,Oregon,October 1985,1-10.

62 "How to Generate and Exchange Secrets",Proceedings of Twenty-seventh IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science,Toronto,Canada,October 1986,162-167.

63 "Monotone Bipartite Graph Properties are Evasive",SIAM J. on Computing,17 (1988),517-520.

64 "Computational Information Theory",in Complexity in Information Theory,edited by Y. Abu-Mostafa,Springer-Verlag,1988,1-15.

65 "Selecting the k Largest with Median Tests",Algorithmica,4 (1989),293-300.

66 "On the Complexity of Partial Order Productions",SIAM J. on Computing,18 (1989),679-689.

67 "On the Improbability of Reaching Byzantine Agreement",(with R. L. Graham) Proceedings of Twenty-First ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing,Seattle,Washington,May 1989,467-478.

68 "Circuits and Local Computations",Proceedings of Twenty First ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing,Seattle,Washington,May 1989,186-196.

69 "Computing Boolean Functions with Unreliable Tests",(with C. Kenyon-Mathieu) International Journal of Foundations of Computer Science,1 (1990),1-10.

70 "Coherent Functions and Program Checkers",Proceedings of Twenty-second ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing,Baltimore,Maryland,May 1990,84-94.

71 "On ACC and Threshold Circuits",Proceedings of Thirty-first IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science,October 1990,619-627.

72 "Lower Bounds to Randomized Algorithms for Graph Properties",Journal of Computer and System Sciences,42 (1991),267-287.

73 "Lower Bounds for Algebraic Computation Trees with Integer Inputs",SIAM J. On Computing,20 (1991),655-668.

74 "Program Checkers for Probability Generation",(with S. Kannan) Proceedings of Eighteenth International Colloquium on Automata,Languages and Programming,Madrid,Spain,July 1991,163-173.

75 "Linear Decision Trees: Volume Estimates and Topological Bounds",(with A. BjÖrner and L. Lovász) Proceedings of Twenty-fourth ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing,May 1992,170-177.

76 "A Circuit-Based Proof of Toda's Theorem",(with R. Kannan,H. Venkateswaran and V. Vinay) Information and Computation,104 (1993),271-276.

77 "Towards Uncheatable Benchmarks",(with J. Cai,R. Lipton,and R. Sedgewick) Proceedings of Eighth IEEE Annual Structure in Complexity Conference,San Diego,California,May 1993,2-11.

78 "Quantum Circuit Complexity",Proceedings of Thirty-fourth IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science,Palo Alto,California,November 1993,352-361.

79 "A Randomized Algorithm for Maximum Finding with Parity Tests",(with H. F. Ting),Information Processing Letters,49 (1994),39-43.

80 "Near-Optimal Time-Space Tradeoff for Element Distinctness",SIAM J. On Computing,23 (1994),966-975.

81 "A Lower Bound for the Monotone Depth of Connectivity",Proceedings of Thirty-fifth IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science,Santa Fe,New Mexico,November 1994,302-308.

82 "On Computing Algebraic Functions Using Logarithms and Exponentials",(with D. Grigoriev and M. Singer) SIAM J. on Computing,24 (1995),242-246.

83 "Algebraic Decision Trees and Euler Characteristics",Theoretical Computer Science,141 (1995),133-150.

84 "On the Shrinkage Exponent for Read-Once Formulae",(with J. Hastad and A. Razborov),Theoretical Computer Science,141 (1995),269-282.

85 "Minimean Optimal Key Arrangements in Hash Tables",Algorithmica,14 (1995),409-428.

86 "Security of Quantum Protocols Against Coherent Measurements",Proceedings of Twenty-seventh ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing,Las Vegas,Nevada,May 1995,67-75.

87 "Decision Tree Complexity and Betti Numbers",Journal of Computer and Systems Sciences,55 (1997),36-43.

88 "Dictionary Look-Up with One Error",(with F. F. Yao),Journal of Algorithms,25 (1997),194-202.

89 "Read-Once Branching Programs,Rectangular Proofs of the Pigeonhole Principle and the Transversal Calculus",(with A. Razborov and A. Wigderson),Proceedings of Twenty-ninth ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing,May 1997,739-784.

90 "RAPID: Randomized Pharmacophore Identification for Drug Design",(with L. Kavraki,J. Latombe,R. Motwani,C. Shelton,and S. Venkatasubramanian),Proceedings of 1997 ACM Symposium on Applied Computational Geometry,Nice,France,1997,324-333.

91 "A Lower Bound on the Size of Algebraic Decision Trees for the MAX Problem",(with D. Grigoriev and M. Karpinski),Computational Complexity,7 (1998),193-203.

92 "Quantum Cryptography with Imperfect Apparatus",(with D. Mayers),Proceedings of Thirty-ninth IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science,October 1998,503-509.

93 "NQP C = co - C = P",(with T. Yamakami),Information Processing Letters,71 (1999),63-69.

94 "Quantum Bit Escrow",(with A. Aharonov,A. Ta-Shma and U. Vazirani),Proceedings of Thirty-second ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing,May 2000,715-724.

95 "Informational Complexity and the Direct Sum Problem for Simultaneous Message Complexity",(with A. Chakrabarti,Y. Shi and A. Wirth),Proceedings of Forty-second IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science,October 2001,270-278.

96 "Classical Physics and the Church-Turing Thesis",Journal of ACM,50 (2003),100-105.

97 "On the Power of Quantum Fingerprinting",Proceedings of Thirty-fifth ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing,June 2003,77-81.

98 "Graph Properties and Circular Functions: How Low Can Quantum Query Complexity Go?" (with X. Sun and S. Zhang),Proceedings of 19th IEEE Conference on Computational Complexity,Amherst,Massachusetts,June 2004,286-293.

99 "Graph Entropy and Quantum Sorting Problems",Proceedings of Thirty-sixth ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing,June 2004,112-117.

100 "Incentive Compatible Price Sequence in Dynamic Auctions",(with N. Chen,X. Deng and X. Sun),Proceedings of Thirty-first International Colloquium on Automata,Languages and Programming,Turku,Finland,July 2004 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science # 3142,Springer),320-331.

101 "Fisher Equilibrium Price with a Class of Concave Utility Functions" (with N. Chen,X. Deng and X. Sun),Proceedings of Twelfth Annual European Symposium on Algorithms,Bergen,Norway,September 2004 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science # 3221,Springer),169-179.

102 "Discrete and Continuous Min-energy Schedules for Variable Voltage Processors",(with M. Li and F. Yao),Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA,103 (2006),3983-3987.

103 "On the Quantum Query Complexity of Local Search in Two and Three Dimensions",(With Xiaoming Sun),Proceedings of 47th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science,Berkeley,CA,October 2006,429-438.

104 "A Note on Universal Composable Zero Knowledge in Common Reference String Model ",(With Frances F. Yao and Yunlei Zhao),The 4th Annual Conference on Theory and Applications of Models of Computation,Shanghai,China,May 2007

105 "A Note on the Feasibility of Generalized Universal Composability ",(With Frances F. Yao and Yunlei Zhao),The 4th Annual Conference on Theory and Applications of Models of Computation,Shanghai,China,May 2007

106 Graph Design for Secure Multiparty Computation over Non-Abelian Groups

107 Generalized Tsirelson Inequalities,Commuting-Operator Provers,and Multi-Prover Interactive Proof Systems

108 Tsuyoshi Ito,Hirotada Kobayashi,Daniel Preda,Xiaoming Sun,and Andrew Chi-Chih Yao Generalized Tsirelson Inequalities,Commuting-Operator Provers,and Multi-Prover Interactive Proof Systems CCC 2008 2008

109 Xiaoming Sun,Andrew Chi-Chih Yao and Christophe Tartary Graph Design for Secure Multiparty Computation over Non-Abelian Groups Asiacrypt 2008

110 Xiaoming Sun,Andrew Chi-Chih Yao. On the Quantum Query Complexity of Local Search in Two and Three Dimensions in the following paginated issue of Algorithmica: Volume 55,Issue3 (2009),Page 576.

111 Andrew C.C. Yao,Frances F. Yao,Yunlei Zhao A Note on Universal Composable Zero Knowledge in Common Reference String Model Theoretical Computer Science 2009

112 Andrew C.C. Yao,Frances F. Yao,Yunlei Zhao A Note on the Feasibility of Generalized Universal Composability Mathematical Structure in Computer Science 2009

113 Andrew C. Yao,Moti Yung,and Yunlei Zhao,Concurrent Knowledge Extraction in the Public-Key Model,ICALP 2010

114 Andrew C. Yao and Yunlei Zhao. Deniable Internet Key Exchange,ACNS2010

2004年,姚期智全职回到中国,在他所从事的算法和复杂性领域,填补了国内计算机学科的空白,并带来了一个从6人增至10人的讲席教授组,他们都是国际上算法和复杂性领域出色的华人学者。随着姚期智的归来,清华计算机学科国际交流的频率和层次都达到了一个新的高度 。

2006年,清华计算机系有3篇论文入选理论计算机科学领域与STOC并列的最顶级学术会议FOCS,实现了国内学者在该会议上“零的突破”。当年24岁的博士生陈汐与来自香港城市大学的讲席教授邓小铁合作解决了理论计算机科学的难题二人博弈中纳什均衡点的复杂性问题,并因此获得2006年度FOCS最佳论文奖 。这一年,姚期智的团队还为国内计算机学者填补了在《美国科学院院刊》上发文的空白。

姚期智的夫人储枫教授早在2003年从美国去香港城市大学担任计算机科学系系主任。

姚期智是研究网络通讯复杂性理论的国际前驱,是图灵奖创立以来首位获奖的亚裔学者,也是迄今为止获此殊荣的唯一华裔计算机科学家 。

姚期智以其敏锐的科学思维,不断向新的学术领域发起冲击,在数据组织、基于复杂性的伪随机数生成理论、密码学、通信复杂性乃至量子通信和计算等多个尖端科研领域,都做出了巨大而独到的贡献。他所发表的近百篇学术论文,几乎覆盖了计算复杂性的所有方面,并在获图灵奖之前,就已经在不同的科研领域屡获殊荣,是计算机理论方面国际上最拔尖的学者。


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