网站地图
A.I.(L42A1狙击步枪)

英军把303口径的No.4,Mk.I(T)狙击步枪改装成7.62×51mm口径的L42A1狙击步枪,虽然L42A1的精度很好,但仍然采用放大率为3倍的No.32瞄准镜,在经历中东、非洲和北爱尔兰的战斗时,这种步枪越来越显得过时,在1982年的福克兰群岛战争时这个问题更显严重,英国人终于意识到他们迫切地需要一种新型的狙击武器系统

A.I.(film)

Directed by Steven Spielberg

Produced by Jan Harlan

Walter F. Parkes

Stanley Kubrick (posthumous credit)

Written by Brian Aldiss (short story)

Ian Watson

Starring Haley Joel Osment

Jude Law

Music by John Williams

Distributed by Warner Bros. (U.S.); Dreamworks LLC (outside the U.S.)

Released June 26, 2001 (New York City premiere)

June 28, 2001 (Los Angeles premiere)

June 29, 2001

The story begins in the 22nd century, when an ecological disaster has resulted in a drastic reduction of the land area of the Earth and also of the human population.

These problems have been successfully addressed by technology. Androids with very high levels of artificial intelligence (called mechas, as opposed to orgas for "organics", i.e. humans) have become commonplace but have been granted no civil rights and must submit to government registration or else be destroyed. While mechas have a level of intelligence comparable to that of humans, they seem to lack emotion. They are also able to simulate certain body functions, such as sexual intercourse, but not others, such as eating or sleeping.

Henry and Monica Swinton are a married couple whose son is extremely sick and near death. In hopes of cheering up his wife, Henry agrees to his company's offer to let him bring home and test a prototype of an extremely advanced humanoid mecha that looks like a boy about the age of their hospitalized son, and which is supposed to be capable of feeling love. The mecha's name is David (named after the creator's late son) and although Monica is initially frightened of the android, she eventually warms to him after activating his experimental imprinting technology, which makes the mecha feel love for her as a child loves a parent.

The couple's son eventually recovers from his disease and returns from the hospital. This prompts a sibling rivalry between the mecha David and the Swintons' real son, who delights in taunting David, chiefly by telling him that Monica will never love him because he isn't "real". After David by accident nearly drowns the Swintons' son, Monica sets out to return him to the manufacturer. But fearing that David will be dismantled, she instead releases him in the forest of rural New Jersey to live as an unregistered robot, accompanied by his animatronic teddy bear friend, named Teddy. David is soon captured and nearly destroyed by a group of anti-robot activists at an event they organize called a Flesh Fair. He narrowly escapes with the help of Gigolo Joe, a male prostitute mecha, who is on the run after being framed for the murder of one of his clients.

The two become friends and set out to find the Blue Fairy, who David remembers from the fairy tale "Pinocchio" as a being who has the power to turn him into a real boy. If he becomes a real boy, he imagines, Monica will love him and take him back. With the assistance of some sympathetic frat boys on a road trip, Joe and David make their way to the decadent metropolis known as Rouge City (perhaps a 22nd century Philadelphia), in search of the knowledge that will lead them to the Blue Fairy.

An oracular computer personality called Dr. Know (voiced by Robin Williams) eventually leads David, with Joe in tow, to his manufacturers' offices at the top of a building in the flooded ruins of Manhattan. There, he sees that he is not unique and his manufacturers have created dozens of copies of him. This fact seems to disturb him as he meets and destroys one of his copies, and, disheartened, he jumps from the office into the ocean.

David is fished from the ocean by Joe in a stolen amphibicopter (amphibious helicopter), but before he is pulled up he sees the Blue Fairy on the bottom of the ocean. After Joe is seized by the police, David flies the amphibicopter back under the water, where it's revealed that what he saw was a statue of the Blue Fairy in the submerged ruins of Coney Island. Naïvely believing it to be the real Blue Fairy, he makes his wish to be turned into a real boy. But the ruins of the Wonder Wheel collapse on the amphibicopter, no longer able to take David back to the water's surface, so he simply waits for the wish to come true. David waits for many years, sitting in the amphibicopter on the bottom of the ocean and staring at the Blue Fairy statue.

In one of the longest flash forwards in motion picture history (not including stories with a major time-travel theme), the action skips to two thousand years later. Manhattan is buried under several hundred feet of glaciers and the human species is extinct. Highly advanced humanoid mechas conducting an archaeological excavation discover David and reactivate him (the ambiguity of these characters' origin, as well as their appearance, have led many to conclude that they are not mechas, but rather extraterrestrials; however, Spielberg has made it clear that they are in fact the mechas of the future). David is deeply upset to be permanently separated from Monica, and eventually the creatures offer to revive her from a few strands of her hair that Teddy saved all this time, although if they do so she will only live for one day and she can never be revived again. David eagerly accepts the offer, and spends one long day alone with Monica, basking in her love. The film ends as Monica and David lie down at the end of the day, to go to "the place where dreams are born."

This ending has been subject to some debate. Many argue that it was really a dark ending masquerading as a happy one. Some observers claimed that the resurrected Monica was in fact an illusion or psychological manipulation created by the advanced Mechas so David can finally settle down peacefully and end his long, sad quest. The resurrected Monica was much warmer than her normal self, and many point out that during the long day she spent with David, she never asked about her husband Henry or her son, Martin. The ending also became a matter of debate among science fiction fans from a storytelling standpoint, with one side supporting the ending and hailing it (and the film as a whole) a classic, and the other side of the opinion that the ending was unnecessary and the film should have ended with David trapped with the Blue Fairy. The debate over the ending is also complicated by the fact that many viewers mistake the advanced mechas for extraterrestrials. They bear some resemblance to extraterrestrials in another Spielberg film, Close Encounters of the Third Kind.

英军把.303口径的No.4,Mk.I(T)狙击步枪改装成7.62×51mm口径的L42A1狙击步枪,虽然L42A1的精度很好,但仍然采用放大率为3倍的No.32瞄准镜,在经历中东、非洲和北爱尔兰的战斗时,这种步枪越来越显得过时,在1982年的福克兰群岛战争时这个问题更显严重,英国人终于意识到他们迫切地需要一种新型的狙击武器系统。在1982年,英国开始为新的狙击手武器系统进行竞标,到1982年底英军已经把参与竞争的公司筛选到剩下五家,再经过一轮选型后,有机会参与最后一轮竞争的只剩下两家公司帕克-黑尔(ParkerHale)和精密国际(AccuracyInternational)。英国陆军对新型狙击步枪的要求很高,在600m射程首发命中率要达到100%,1000m射程内要获得很好的射击效果,其他竞争者除了达不到精度要求外,对于英军要求采用10发可卸弹匣的这一项也很少能够达标。帕克-黑尔公司也是以生产优秀的狙击步枪而闻名的,其提交的M85步枪是已经在澳大利亚和加拿大军队服役的M82步枪的改进型,这是一种传统的旋转后拉式枪机步枪,配用6倍光学瞄准镜,有后备机械瞄具,采用塑料枪托。相比之下,位于朴次茅斯的AI公司的历史就很短,它唯一出名的只是它的创办人兼主设计师马尔柯姆库帕(MalcolmCooper)。库帕的出身是一个工程师,但同时也是一个国际级射击比赛选手,他曾在多次在世界性的射击比赛上夺冠,包括2次奥运会冠军、8次世锦赛冠军和13次获欧洲锦标赛冠军(注:在中国奥委会官方网站上就能查到MalcolmCooper在1984和1988年获得男子小口径步枪3×40冠军的记录),并拥有各种口径、不同原理步枪射击的的12项世界记录。身为一个熟练的射手,库帕知道对于一把精确步枪的设计来说,什么是应该做的,什么是不应该做的。所以他在1978年5月成立了自己的公司国际精密有限公司,招聘了40名雇员,专门生产符合国际射击比赛要求的步枪,而这次是AI公司头一次尝试涉足军用步枪先列。AI公司提交的样枪被命名为“PM”(PrecisionMatch精确比赛),这也是一种采用塑料枪托的步枪,但它的结构很特殊,并不是用传统的实心枪托,而是采用两块尼龙板合起来的可调长度中空枪托,回转式枪机有8个闭锁凸笋。瞄准装置是德国施密特-本德(Schmidt&Bender)生产的6×42mm白光瞄准镜,并配有后备的机械瞄具。位于渥敏斯特(Warminster)的步兵学校在仔细检讨过这两家竞争对手后,认为AI公司勉强胜出。这个决定是有争议的,一方面是因为帕克-黑尔公司良好的声誉和它的样枪的确不错,另外也是因为有人对PM步枪的枪机提出质疑。然而,英军最终还是采用了PM步枪,并命名为L96。英军购买了超过1,200支L96步枪,随后其他一些国家如法国外籍兵团也购买了一些PM步枪,PM/L96步枪总共售卖了约2,000支。AI公司根据英军提出的要求继续改进PM步枪,在1990年停止了PM/L96步枪的生产,转而生产新的改进型AW步枪(ArcticWarfare北极战争)。英军马上就采用了这种AW步枪,并重新命名为L96A1。AW步枪是改进了枪机的PM步枪,其操作更快捷,只需向上旋转60°和拉后107mm,这种设计的优点很明显:射手在操作枪机时头部能始终靠在贴腮处,因而狙击手可以一边保持瞄准镜中的景象一边抛出弹壳和推弹进膛。而且,该枪机还具有防冻功能,即使在-40℃的温度中仍能可靠地运作,而这一点也是英军特别要求的。除此以外,AW/L96A1与PM/L96基本相同。AW/L96A1主要配用施密特-本德公司的10×42mm白光瞄准镜,并有后备机械瞄具。以AW为基础,AI公司推出一系列不同类型的狙击步枪,包括警用型AWP,消声型AWS,马格南型AWM,.50BMG口径型AW50,此外上述型号中均有被称为F型的折叠枪托型,如AW-F或AWM-F。如前所述,除英国外有超过40多个国家购买了AW系列,例如除法国外,第一批采用PM步枪的国家中还有瑞典。在1983年,瑞典的国防部开始选择新狙击步枪,经过一轮严格的对比后AI公司的PM步枪获胜,7年后瑞典军方又采用了新的AW步枪,并正式命名为“PSG90”,采购了超过1000支。在1998年,德军采用.300温彻斯特-马格南口径的AWM-F并命名为“G22”。澳大利亚在2000年3月选择了AW-F的一种改进型,命名为“SR98”。此外,比利时、爱尔兰、新西兰的军队,还有加拿大、阿曼、美国等不同国家的执法机构都有使用AW系列步枪。为方便打进北美市场,精密国际公司还在1997年在美国田纳西州的OakRidge建了一家新工厂,称为“精密国际北美有限公司”(AINA,AccuracyInternationalNorthAmericaInc)。

a.i.

available ingredient的简称,常用 g a.i./hm2 表示克/公顷 有效成分用量


相关文章推荐:
狙击步枪 | L42A1狙击步枪 | 北爱尔兰 | 福克兰群岛战争 | L42A1狙击步枪 | 英国 | L42A1狙击步枪 | 北爱尔兰 | 福克兰群岛战争 | 英国陆军 | 加拿大军队 | 朴次茅斯 | 中国奥委会 | 法国外籍兵团 | 马格南 | 瑞典 | 比利时 | 爱尔兰 | 阿曼 | 田纳西州 |
相关词汇词典