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副词(英语副词)

副词(Adverb)是指在句子中表示行为或状态特征的词,用以修饰动词、形容词、其他副词或全句,表示时间、地点、程度、方式等概念。副词可分为:时间副词、频率副词、地点副词、方式副词、程度副词、疑问副词、连接副词、关系副词、表顺序的副词。

程度副词+地点副词+方式副词+时间副词。

起修饰或限制动词或形容词作用、表程度或范围的词。

now,then,often,always,usually,next,lastday,already(已经),generally(一般地),

frequently(频繁),seldom/hardly(很少地),ever,never,yet,soon,too, immediately(立即),

finally,shortly(很快), before, ago,sometimes, yesterday. once,twice,

lately,recently,personally,today……yet

here, there, everywhere, anywhere,somewhere, in, out, inside, outside,

above, below, up,down, back, forward(向前地), home,

upstairs(楼上地), downstairs, across, along, round , around,

near, off, past, up, away, on.……

carefully, properly(适当地), anxiously(焦虑地), suddenly, normally(正常地),

fast, well, calmly(冷静地), politely(有礼貌地), proudly(自豪地), softly,

warmly ,slowly,badly,hard,bravely……

much,little, very,rather(相当),so,too,still, quite, perfectly(完美地),

enough, extremely(非常), entirely(整个),almost, slightly(细小地), hardly.……

how, when, where, why……

when, where, why……

therefore(因此),moreover(此外),however,otherwise(另外的),

then,when ,where,how,why……

first,then,next,finally,afterwards,primarily……

already,ever,just,never,since,yet,recently……

副词在句中可作状语,表语,补语,定语。

He works hard. (作状语)
  他工作努力。

You speak English very well. (作状语)
  你英语讲得相当好。

Does she stay home? (作表语)
  她呆在家吗?

[she stays home是主系表结构,stay 此处是[linking verb 连系动词], home 是[adv.],作stay的表语]

[PS: 至于she stays at home...此处stay是实义动词,整个句子是主谓结构,at home是介词短语做地点状语]

Let's be out. (作表语)
  让我们出去吧。

Food here is hard to get. (here作定语,hard作状语)
  这儿很难弄到食物。

Let him out!(作补语)
  让他出去!

.修饰名词的副词放在被修饰词之后

a. The villagers there are busy getting in wheat.

1) 多数副词放在动词后面,或者放在be动词助动词情态动词之后,实义动词之前。 如果实义动词后有宾语,则放于宾语之后。

I am also Bush.
  我也是布什。

I can also do that.
  我也可以这样做。

I also want to play that games.
  我也想玩这游戏。

I get up early in the morning every day.
  每一天的早晨我都起得很早。

She didn't drink water enough.
  她没有喝足够的水 。

We can go to this school freely.
  我们可以免费到这家学校学习。

They left a life hardly then.
  当时他们的生活很艰难。

I have seen this film twice with my friends.
  这部电影我和朋友看过两次。

2) 副词修饰形容词,副词时,一般放在被修饰词之前,但enough除外。

It's rather easy, I can do it.
  这很容易,我能做到。

He did it quite well.
  他做得相当好。

It's rather difficult to tell who is right.
  很难说谁是对的。

He didn't run fast enough to catch the train.
  他的奔跑速度不足以快到能够追上火车。

3) 频度副词可放在实义动词的前面,情态动词和助动词的后面。

I often help him these days.
  这些日子我经常帮助他。

I always remember the day when I first came to this school.
  我常常记得我第一次来学校的那一天。

You mustn't always help me.
  你不能老是帮助我。

We usually go shopping once a week.
  我们通常一周买一次东西。

The new students don't always go to dance.
  新学生并不时常去跳舞。

4) 疑问副词,连接副词,关系副词以及修饰整个句子的副词,通常放在句子或从句的前面。

When do you study everyday?
  你每天什么时间学习?

Can you tell me how you did it?
  你能告诉我你如何做的吗?

First, let me ask you some questions.
  先让我来问几个问题。

How much does this bike cost?
  这辆车子多少钱?

The students were reading when the teacher came into the classroom.
  当老师进教室时,学生们正在读书。

5) 时间副词和地点副词在一个句中, 地点副词在前面,时间副词在后面。

We went shopping in the supermarket at 9 o'clock yesterday.
  昨天九点钟我们到超市买东西了.

What were you doing in the classroom yesterday afternoon?
  昨天下午你在教室里干什么?

The accident took place in the Eleven Avenue one hour ago.
  这场事故在一小时前发生在十一号大街。

6)否定副词在句首,句子要部分倒装

Never have I felt so excited!
  我从来没有觉得这么激动!

副词和形容词一样,也有它的比较级和最高级形式. 可以参考形容词的变换形式。但以词尾 -ly 结尾的副词(除 early )须用 more 和 most 。
  hard-harder-hardest
  fast-faster-fastest
  early-earlier-earliest
  much-more-most
  warmly-more warmly-most warmly

单音节副词的比较级是在副词后面加上 -er 构成的,最高级是在副词后面加上 -est 构成的。
  near-nearer-nearest
  hard-harder-hardest

多音节副词的比较级是在副词的前面加上 -more 构成的。 最高级是在副词前面加上 -most 构成的。
  warmly-more warmly-most warmly
  successfully-more successfully-most successfully

有些副词的比较级和最高级形式是不规则的。
  well-better-best
  little-less-least
  much-more-most
  badly-worse-worst
  far-farther-farthest
  far-further-furthest

副词的比较级和最高级用法同形容词的比较级用法基本一样。 最高级形式句中 the 可以省略。

He works harder than me.
  他比我工作努力。

Lucy gets up earlier than Lili.
  露西比丽丽起床早。

He runs fastest in our class.
  他在我们班跑地最快。

He dives deeper than his teammates.
  他比他的队员潜水深。

It's true that he speak English more fluently than any of us.
  他英语讲的确实比我们任何人都好。

Our school team play football best in our region.
  我们校队在我们地区足球踢得最好的。

1. 原级比较由“as+形容词或副词(或再加名词或短语)+as ”构成“原级相同”比较句,表示两者比较;其否定式,即“程度不及”比较句型为“not so(as) +形容词或副词+as”,而且as…as结构前可用just, almost, nearly, quite等表示程度的词修饰

1) Walking briskly for thirty minutes will burn as many calories as _________.
  〔A〕 to run for fifteen minutes
  〔B〕 running for fifteen minutes
  〔C〕 you run for fifteen minutes
  〔D〕 fifteen?minute walking

2) The gorilla(大猩猩), while 〔A〕 not quite as curious than 〔B〕 the chimpanzee(黑猩猩), shows more persistence 〔C〕 and memory retention(记忆力) in solving 〔D〕 a problem.

3) Alaska is twice 〔A〕 as larger 〔B〕 as 〔C〕 the next largest 〔D〕 state, Texas.

2. “as (so)+名词+as+名词”进行名词比较,这时一般情况下有一个表示原级的比较词,但如果第一名词前出现了形容词修饰该词或出现副词修饰谓语,应当用so而不用as

4) Thomas Jefferson’s achievements as an architect rival his contributions a politician.
  〔A〕 such
  〔B〕 more
  〔C〕 as
  〔D〕 than

5) I should say Henry is not much a writer as a reporter. (88年考题)
  〔A〕 that
  〔B〕 so
  〔C〕 this
  〔D〕 as

3. 表示“是……几倍”时用“twice; three times等 + as 形容\副词as...” eg. 1)This book costs twice as much as that one. 这本书的价钱是那本书的两倍。

2)He has four times as many books as I have 他拥有的书是我拥有的四倍

1. 比较级由“形容词(副词)比较级+than+…,”构成表示在两者中间一方比另一方“更加…”。连词than后可接句子,也可接名词、代词、名词短语、介词短语、动词、动词不定式、?ING结构和?ED结构,有时也可省去than。

6) Natural mica(云母) of 〔A〕 a superior 〔B〕 quality is cheapest 〔C〕 to obtain than synthetic 〔D〕 mica.

7) She is older than .
  〔A〕 any other girl in the group
  〔B〕 any girl in the group
  〔C〕 all girls in the group
  〔D〕 you and me as well as the group

8) Josephine McCrackin joined 〔A〕 the “Santa Cruz Sentinel” in 1905 and, until her death fifteen years late 〔B〕 , remained 〔C〕 active in journalistic 〔D〕 work.

2. 注意than前后两项相比较的人或事物要一致

9) The purpose of the research had a more important meaning for them than .
  〔A〕 ours
  〔B〕 with us
  〔C〕 for ours it had
  〔D〕 it did for us

10) Sound travels air.
  〔A〕 faster through water than through 〔B〕 faster than through water and
  〔C〕 through water faster and〔D〕 where it is faster through water than through

11) Gerbrand von den Feckhout, one of Rembrand’s pupils, followed 〔A〕 the style of his teacher so implicitly that 〔B〕 his paintings 〔C〕 are sometimes confused with his master 〔D〕 .

1. 最高级用于三者以上比较,形容词的结构形式是“定冠词+形容词最高级+名词+表示范围的短语(地点)或从句”(如all, of all, of the tree, in the world, that has ever taken place等)或“定冠词+形容词最高级+of+人群”

12) The more 〔A〕 fearsome of all the 〔B〕 animals in 〔C〕 the Western 〔D〕 Hemisphere is the grizzly bear.

13) Of all economic 〔A〕 problems, inflation continues to be 〔B〕 a 〔C〕 most significant in its daily impact on 〔D〕 people and business.

14) __________, the most familiar to general public is the criminal jurisdiction.
  〔A〕 All the activities
  〔B〕 The activities
  〔C〕 Of all the activities
  〔D〕 It is the activities

2. 副词的最高级与形容词最高级的区别在于最高级可以不用定冠词the

由“as(so)…as”引出,其否定式为“not so…”或“not as…as”,考生还应注意下列含有“as”结构或短语的句子

as such:表示上文所指明的事或人
  He is a child,and must be treated as such.
  他是个孩子,必须被当作孩子对待。

as much:表示“与…同量”
  Take as much as you like. 拿多少都行。
  I would gladly have paid twice as much for it. 就是价格再贵一倍,我也会愿意把它买下的。
  He as much as admitted the whole story. 他几乎全部承认了。

as many:表示“与…一样多”
  I found six mistakes in as many lines. 我在六行中发现了六个错。

用twice (两倍),four times (四倍),ten times (十倍)加上as … as 结构

This one is four times as big as that one. 这个是那个的四倍大。(这个比那个大三倍。)

Our campus is three times as large as yours. 我们的校园比你们的大两倍。

He has books twice as many as she does. 他的书比她多一倍。

1) The five?year deal obligates 〔A〕 the country to buy nine million tons 〔B〕 of grain a year 〔C〕 , three million more as 〔D〕 the old pact’s minimum.

“the same +名词+as”表示同等比较

2) The lens of a camera performs the lens of the eye.
  〔A〕 in the same function 〔B〕 the same function as
  〔C〕 the function is the same as 〔D〕 and has the same function

3) The elimination of inflation would ensure that the amount of money used in repaying a loan would
  have as the amount of money borrowed.
  〔A〕 as the same value 〔B〕 the same value
  〔C〕 value as the same 〔D〕 the value is the same

比较级前可用a little, a bit, slightly, a great deal, a lot,many, much等词语表示不定量,far, completely,still表示程度或更进一步

4) There are now methods for studying color vision in infants than there once were.
  〔A〕 more sophisticated than
  〔B〕 much more sophisticated
  〔C〕 much sophisticated
  〔D〕 sophisticated

5) The photographs of Mars taken by satellite are than those taken from the Earth.
  〔A〕 clearest
  〔B〕 the clearest
  〔C〕 much clearer
  〔D〕 more clearer

6) Common porpoises(海豚) are usually not considered 〔A〕 migratory, although 〔B〕 some do move 〔C〕 to more warmer 〔D〕 waters in winter.

close意思是"近"; closely 意思是"仔细地"

He is sitting close to me.

Watch him closely.

late意思是"晚"; lately 意思是"最近"

You have come too late.

What have you been doing lately?

deep意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地"

He pushed the stick deep into the mud.

Even father was deeply moved by the film.

high表示空间高度;highly表示程度,相当于much

The plane was flying high.

I think highly of your opinion.

wide表示空间宽度;widely意思是"广泛地","在许多地方"

He opened the door wide.

English is widely used in the world.

free的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地"

You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like.

You may speak freely; say what you like.

副词有加a或ly的 区别在于通常加a 的副词描述一种状态,而加ly 的副词则倾向于感觉。

英语中, 有些副词具有两种形式:一是与形容词同形;二是由该形容词后加-ly构成(以下称形容词形副词和-ly形副词)。这两种形式的副词有些含义相同或在某些情 况下含义相同,有些则完全不同;有的含义相同但用法又有所不同,有的含义不同但用法又相同。如何正确运用这些副词,是同学们在平时学习中经常遇到的令人困 惑的问题,因为这涉及到语体、语义和语用等方面的问题。

1.形容词形副词倾向于表静态意义,突出"感觉,状态、结果";-ly形副词倾向于表动态意义,强调"方式、方法"。由于表达的语体,语义侧重点和感情色彩不同,这两种副词有时可以互换使用,所以其内含的静动态意义也会随之变化。

2.形容词形副词不能被一个程度状语所修饰,而-ly形副词则可以。

3.形容词形副词多用在非正式语体中,而-ly形副词多用在正式语体中。

4.形容词形副词一般表示较具体的概念,而-ly形副词则表示抽象或引申意义,有时还带有一定的感情色彩。

5.在表示比较级和最高级时通常用形容词形副词来取代-ly形副词。

6.在过去分词、作主语用的动名词和强调句中被强调的成分前通常只用-ly形副词而不用形容词形副词。

1.cheap和cheaply
  两者意思相同。但在实际运用中,一般只用cheap而不用cheaply,尤其是在口语中与动词buy和sell等连用时,只用cheap。例如:
  He sold the house very cheap.他很便宜地把房子卖掉了。

2.clean和cleanly
  clean作副词用时,表示"完全、彻底地"的意思时,常与动词forget,介词over和 through,副词away和out连用,其他的动词、介词和副词常与cleanly搭配使用。例如:
  I am sorry,I clean forgot it.对不起,我把这事全忘了。
  The knife doesn’t cut cleanly.这刀切起来不利索。

3.clear和clearly
  两者表示"清楚地"的意思时,除上述六种情况外,一般情况下可以互用。例如:
  We clear /clearly need to think over the plan again.我们显然需要对这个计划再三考虑。
  然而,当clear表示"完全,彻底"的意思时,可与clean互换使用。例如:
  He found the cat got clear /clean away
  when he came back.当他回来时,他发现那只猫逃得无影无踪。
  此外,当clear表示"隔开,不接触"的意思时,一般不能与clearly或clean互换使用。例如:
  Stand clear of the gate!别站在大门口!
  You should keep clear of that fellow.你不要与那家伙来往。

4.close和closely
  两者意思有时相同。close作副词用时表示"接近,紧密"的意思,但在过去分词前要用 closely。一般情况下closely用来表示"仔细地、细心地"的意思。例如:
  Come close,I want to tell you something.靠近点,我有点事要告诉你。
  She is closely related to the old woman.她是那位老太太的近亲。

5.dead和deadly
  dead作副词时多用在某些词组里,表示"的确,完全"的意思;deadly一般作形容词用,意为"致命的"。用副词表达这个意思时要用fatally。只有修饰形容词时deadly才作副词表示"死一样地"的意思。例如:
  The man lay on the ground,dead drunk.那个人躺在地上,喝得烂醉。
  On hearing the terrible news,his face went deadly pale.一听到那可怕的消息,他的脸色变得像死人一样苍白。

6.deep和deeply
  两者的意思基本相同,但deep多用于谚语、习语和静态的描述中;deeply的意思比较抽象,多用来修饰表示颜色的形容词或分词。例如:Still water runs deep.静水渊深。(大智若愚。)
  They felt deeply grateful to the teacher.他们对那位老师感激万分。

7.direct和directly
  direct作副词时,往往用于表示时间、路程和方式等概念上;directly多用于借喻,有时还可用来表示"立即、马上"的意思。例如:
  The plane goes direct from London to Houston without stopping.飞机由伦敦直飞休斯敦,中途不停。
  I must go home directly.我必须马上回家去。

8.easy和easily
  easy作副词时多用于一些习语中,表示"从容不迫,慢慢地,容易地"的意思;easily多用来表示人和物的能力、力量等,意为"容易地,不费劲地"。例如:
  Don’t be so nervous,take it easy.别紧张,放松点。
  I found it easily.我很容易地找到了它。

9.fair和fairly
  fair 作副词时多用于一些习语中,本意为"公正地,公平地,光明正大地",其引申意则变化较大。常见的与fair搭配的习语有play fair(光明正大地比 赛),fight fair(按规矩格斗),deal fair with sb.(公平待人),fall fair(直挺挺地倒下),hit fair (不偏不倚正击中), speak sb.fair(对某人花言巧语)等。
  除了一些习语外,表示"公正地"多用 fairly。此外,fairly还可用作程度状语,其意思和quite或rather相近。例如:
  He was fairly beside himself with joy.他欣喜若狂。
  It may be fairly asserted that he is a liar.完全可以推断出他是一个骗子。

10.firm和firmly
  firm和firmly的意思基本相同,都表示"坚定,稳定,牢固"的意思。根据用法习惯, firm只与hold和stand搭配,其它情况都用 firmly。例如:
  The girl held firmly to her mother’s hand when the stranger came to them. 当那陌生人朝她们走过来时,那个小女孩紧紧抓住她母亲的手。Stand firm,don’t move!站稳,别动!

11.high和highly
  一般来说,high作副词时多用来表示具体物体的高矮,highly多用于表示抽象意义上的高低,但high也可表抽象意义。然而,在分词前一般只用high,而不用highly。例如:
  A bird is flying high in the sky.一只鸟正高飞在天空。
  He spoke highly of her.他高度赞扬了她。

12.light和lightly
  light作副词的意思是"轻轻地、轻装地"和"(睡得)不熟"等,而lightly则表示"轻微地,轻率地"的意思。有时light和lightly可以互换。例如:
  I like travelling light.我喜欢轻装旅行。
  He wears his seventy years lightly.他简直看不出有七十多岁。
  另外,light还经常与其它的词搭配使用,一起构成短语,如make light of,set light by(轻视),sit light on(对……来说负担不重)等。

13.loud和loudly
  在动词的后面以及在口语中一般用 loud,而不用loudly。与loud连用的动词多是一些表示动作的动词。这些动词有talk, speak,shout,laugh,cry等。例如:
  Don’t talk ;so loud,you will wake the whole street.别那么大声说话,左邻右居都会被你吵醒的。
  Her voice arrived loud and clear in my phone.我的电话里传来了她清脆响亮的声音。

14.low和lowly
  low作副词时经常被用来作状语修饰 aim,bow,buy,curtsey,fall,sell,sing,speak等动词表示"低,便宜的"意思;lowly通常用作形容词,其意思是"卑微的,低贱的"。lowly作副词用时多可以由low代替。例如:
  The village is located low in the slope of a hill.那个村庄处在山坡低处。
  Don’t sell the clothes too low.不要把那套衣服太廉价出售掉。

15.near和nearly
  near 作副词用时多表示具体时间或空间上的"近,临近";nearly多用来表示抽象的概念,其意思是"几乎,差不多"。nearly可以与 not连用,但不 能和其它否定词如never,no- body,nothing,nowhere,no,none等连用。例如:
  The Spring Festival is drawing near.春节即将到来。
  It is not nearly as easy as you think.那远不像你想得那么容易。
  另外,nearly还可以表示"亲密地,密切地"的意思。例如:
  They are nearly related,but they hardly meet.他们是近亲,但他们难得有机会相见。

16.real和really
  real和really的意思基本相同,但real多用在形容词和副词前面表示强调,而really的位置则比较灵活,它通常可放在动词前和复合谓语的第一个动词后面。有时,在否定句中,really的位置不同则可引出不同的意思。例如:
  You food real well.你做的饭菜确实很好。
  Really,I don’t think I agree with you.真的,我恐怕不同意你的看法。

17.right 和 rightly
  right和rightly的意思基本相同。right多用在动词后或介词短语前,与习语搭配时多用rightly。rightly可以放在动词前或后。有时在动词之后,right和rightly可以互用。例如:
  It serves you right.你罪有应得。
  The post office lies right at the corner of the street.邮局就在那条街的拐角处。

18.slow和slowly
  slow作副词用时,语气比slowly强,且多用于口语体、祈使句和习语中。slowly常用于陈述句。例如:
  Drive slow!开慢点!
  They walked slowly down the road.他们慢慢地沿着大路走过去了。
  注意:著名学者周海中教授指出,当slow作为副词时,它与其派生词slowly在用法上无甚区别。例如:The cat came slow(ly) towards us.[那只猫向着我们慢慢地走来]。但有几点值得注意,尤其是它们的习惯用法,可详见《Slow与Slowly》一文。

19.strong和strongly
  strong 只用于少数短语中。与strong搭配的短语常见的有by the strong arm /hand(强制地),come /go it strong (做得过火),come on strong(给人以强烈的印象),go strong(强健), go strong on(竭力主张)等。一般情况下 用 strongly表示"强烈、有力地"的意思。例如:
  She strongly insisted on seeing her lawyer.她坚持要见她的律师。
  Smith is still going strong after 40years of work.史密斯工作了四十年,还是身强体壮。

20.sure和surely
  sure 作副词时常用在某些短语和简略回答句中,表示"当然,确实"的意思。常与sure搭配的短语有sure enough(果然),as sure as (和……一样确实),be sure and(千万要……),for sure(确实,毫无疑问),make sure(查明,弄清楚)等。surely 表示"必定,一定"的意思,多用于句末等情况。例如:
  May I come in?--Sure!我可以进来吗?当然可以!
  You will surely pass the test.你一定会考及格。

1)a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even等

2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。

3)以上词(除by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。

---- Are you feeling ____?
  ---- Yes,I'm fine now.
  A. any well B. any better C. quite good D. quite better
  答案:B. any 可修饰比较级,quite修饰原级,well的比较级为better.

The experiment was____ easier than we had expected.
  A. more B. much more C. much D. more much
  答案:C. much可修饰比较级,因此B,C都说得通,但easier本身已是比较级,不需more,因此正确答案为C

If there were no examinations, we should have ___ at school.
  A. the happiest time B. a more happier time C. much happiest time D. a much happier time
  答案:D。


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