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动词

动词(Verb)一般就是用来表示动作或状态的词汇。在英语中,动词按作用和功能主要分为两大类,一类是谓语动词,另一类是非谓语动词。

<比如> 突跃,突击,突袭等描述动作过程均属动词。

中文语法中表示人或事物的动作或一种动态变化。一般出现在名词主语或主句后面。 [1]

“动词”,顾名思义即是表示动作、动态的一个个词。通常在一个句子里会包含“主语”、谓语、宾语。动词一般作为谓语。

“动词”,表示人或事物的动作、存在、变化的词,如‘走、笑、有、在、看、写、飞、落、保护、开始、起来、上去’。 [1]

动词是表示动作、行为、心理活动或存在变化等的词。例如:
  表示动作行为:说、看、走、听、笑、拿、飞翔、跑、吃、唱、喝、敲、坐、吆喝、盯、踢、闻、摸、批评、宣传、保卫、学习、研究、进行、开始、停止、禁止
  表示存在、变化、消失:在、死、有、等于、发生、演变、发展、生长、死亡、存在、消灭
  表示心理活动:想、爱、恨、怕、想念、打算、喜欢、希望、害怕、担心、讨厌、觉的、思考
  表示判断:是、为、乃
  表示可能、意愿、必要(助动词):能、能够、会、可以、愿、愿意、肯、敢、要、应当、应该、配、值得、宁可
  表示趋向(趋向动词):上、下、进、出、回、开、过、起、来、上来、下来、进来、出来、回来、开来、过来、起来、去、上去、下去、进去、出主、回去,开去、过去
  表示发展动词:如生长、枯萎、发芽、结果、产卵;

根据动词后能否带宾语,可以分为及物动词和不及物动词两类。
  三、动词的语法特点
  1.一部分动词可以重叠,表示“动作短暂”或“尝试”的意思,是时态的表示法。
  单音节动词重叠形式是:AA
  看看看、想想想
  试试试、讲讲讲
  双音节动词重叠形式是:ABAB
  学习学习学习、批评批评批评
  讨论讨论讨论、休息休息休息
  动词比较复杂,有的需要加以说明。
  1.动词“是”
  I.“是”用在名词前边是动词,这种“是”常常表示主语“等于什么”或“属于什么”。例如“鲁迅就是周树人”、“牛是反刍动物”、“他是个开车的”、“是他救了我”;此外,“这一年,人家都是丰年,我是歉年,收完秋就没吃的了”等里面的“是”仍是动词,作谓语。
  II.“是”用在动词、形容词前边,表示肯定,含有“的确”、“实在”的意思,可以看作语气副词,作状语,例如“我〔是〕懂了”、“他〔是〕勇敢”、“这样做〔是〕好”。
  2.动词“有”
  “有”只当动词用,不能当副词用。例如:
  请问,这里有卖钢笔吗?(错)请问,这里有钢笔卖吗?(对)
  李光有在吗?(错)李光在吗?/李光在不在?(对)
  李老师有教过你吗?(错)李老师教过你吗?/李老师曾经教过你吗?(对)
  有受伤吗?(错)受伤没有?(对)
  3.助动词
  助动词是指动词中能放在“不X不”(不敢不)格式里的词。助动词可以作谓语,如“这样做可以不可以”、“完全可以”。但它们经常用在动词、形容词前边作状语,表示动作者的主观意愿和表示可能性、必要性等。例如“我们一定[要]坚持原则”、“春天到了,天气[应该]暖和了”。
  4.趋向动词
  趋向动词可以单独作谓语,如“月亮下去了,太阳还没有出来”。还经常用在别的动词或形容词后边表示趋向。作趋向补语,如“拿<出>一本书”、“拿<出来>一本书”、“拿<出>一本书<来>”。 [1]

1) 四类句中功能

分别是:实义动词(Notional Verb)、系动词(Link Verb)、助动词(Auxiliary Verb)、情态动词

(Modal Verb)。

还可以分成及物动词和不及物动词

说明:有些情况下,有些动词是兼类词例如:

We are having a meeting. 我们正在开会。 (having是实义动词。)

He has gone to New York. 他已去纽约。

(has是助动词。)

2)两类其后是否带有宾语

分别是:及物动词(Transitive Verb)、不及物动词(Intransitive Verb),缩写形式分别为vt. 和vi.。 说明:同一动词有时可用作及物动词,有时可用作不及物动词。例如:

She can dance and sing.

她能唱歌又能跳舞。(sing在此用作不及物动词。)

She can sing many English songs.

她能唱好多首英文歌曲。(sing用作及物动词。)

3) 根据是否受主语的人称和数的限制

分别是:限定动词(Finite Verb)、非限定动词(Non-finite Verb)例如:

She sings very well.

她唱得很好。(sing受主语she的限制,故用第三人称单数形式sings。)

She wants to learn English well.

她想学好英语。(to learn不受主语she的限制,没有词形变化,是非限定动词。

说明:英语中共有三种非限定动词,分别是:动词不定式(Infinitive)、动名词(Gerund)、分词(Participle)。

4)动词可分为三类

分别是:单字词(One-Word Verb)、短语动词(Phrasal Verb)、动词短语(Verbal Phrase)例如:

The English language contains many phrasal verbs and verbal phrases.

英语里有许多短语动词和动词短语。(contains是单字动词。)

Students should learn to look up new words in dictionaries.

学生们学会查字典。(look up是短语动词。)

The young ought to take care of the old.

年轻人应照料老人。(take care of是动词短语。)

5)五种形态

分别是:原形(Original Form)、第三人称单数形式(Singular Form in Third Personal)、过去式(Past Form)、过去分词(Past Participle)、现在分词(Present Participle)。

(1)多数能作动语带宾语,能作谓语或谓语中心(核心),如“他来了。”“我们热爱祖国。”

(2)动词能够受副词“不”修饰,只有少数表心理活动的动词和一些能愿动词能够前加程度副词,例如能说“很怕他”、“很喜欢他”、“很羡慕他”。

(3)能构成“V不V”式并带宾语表示提问,如“看不看书”。

(4)动词多数可以后带着、了、过”等表示动态。

(5)有些动作行为动词可以重叠,表示短促动作的数量小或时量短或尝试、轻松等意义,限于表示可持续的动作时间。单音节动词重叠是AA式,如“想想”,双音节动词重叠是ABAB式,如“打扫打扫”。有些动宾式合成词的重叠式是AAB式,如“散散步”。AA式重叠后常加“看”,表示“尝试”,使语气缓和。 [2]

系动词亦称联系动词(Link Verb),作为系动词。有些不具词义;有些具有词义,但不能单独用作谓语,后边必须跟表语(亦称补语),构成系表结构说明主语的状况、性质、特征等情况。

说明:

有些系动词又是实义动词,该动词表达实义时,有词义,可单独作谓语,例如:

Food goes bad in summer.

He went to school at six.

1)状态系动词

用来表示主语状态,只有be一词,例如:

He is a teacher. 他是一名教师。(is与补足语一起说明主语的身份。)

2)持续系动词

用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有keep,rest,remain,stay,lie,stand,例如:

He always kept silent at meeting. 他开会时总保持沉默。

This matter rests a mystery. 此事仍是一个谜。

3)表像系动词

用来表示"看起来像"这一概念,主要有seem,appear,look,例如:

He looks tired. 他看起来很累。

He seems (to be) very sad. 他看起来很伤心。

4)感官系动词

感官系动词主要有feel,smell,sound,taste,例如:

This kind of cloth feels very soft.

这种布手感很软。

This flower smells very sweet.

这朵花闻起来很香。

5)变化系动词

这些系动词表示主语变成什么样,变化系动词主要有become,grow,turn,fall,get,go,come,run.

例如:

He became mad after that. 自那之后,他疯了。

She grew rich within a short time. 她没多长时间就富了。

6)终止系动词

表示主语已终止动作,主要有prove,turn out,表达"证实","变成"之意,例如:

The rumor proved false. 这谣言证实有假。

The search proved difficult. 搜查证实很难。

His plan turned out a success. 他的计划终于成功了。(turn out表终止性结果)

最常用的助动词有:be,have,do,shall,will,should,would )协助主要动词构成谓语动词词组的词叫助动词(Auxiliary Verb)。被协助的动词称作主要动词(Main Verb)。

助动词自身没有词义,不可单独使用,例如:

He doesn't like English. 他不喜欢英语。

(doesn't是助动词,无词义;like是主要动词,有词义)

2) 助动词协助主要动词完成以下功用,可以用来:

a. 表示时态,例如:

He is singing. 他在唱歌。

He has got married. 他已结婚。

b. 表示语态,例如:

He was sent to England. 他被派往英国。

c. 构成疑问句,例如:

Do you like college life? 你喜欢大学生活吗?

Did you study English before you came here? 你来这儿之前学过英语吗?

d. 与否定副词not合用,构成否定句,例如:

I don't like him. 我不喜欢他。

e. 加强语气,例如:

Do come to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定来参加晚会。

He did know that. 他的确知道那件事。

功能介绍 在功能上介乎主动词和助动词之间的一类结构,称为半助动词。常见的半助动词有be about to,be due to,be going to,be likely to,be meant to,be obliged to,be supposed to,be willing to,have to,seem to,be unable to,be unwilling to等。

情态助动词1.情态助动词包括will(would),shall(should),can(could),may(might),must,need,dare,ought to,used to,had better后接原形不定词。2.情态助动词不受主词的人称和数的限制。3.两个情态助动词不能连用。中文:他将能够及时完成此事。(误)He will can finish it i......

基本助动词基本助动词只有三个:be,do,have,他们没有词汇意义,只有语法作用,如协助构成进行体,完成体,被动态,否定句,疑问句等。例如 He is giving a lecture. 他在作报告He has made a plan. 他已经订了计划The small animals are kept in the cages. 小动物都关在笼子里。He doesn't smoke.......

动词加小品构成的起动词作用的短语叫短语动词(Phrasal Verb)。例如:

Turn off the radio. 把收音机关上。(turn off是短语动词)

短语动词的构成基本有下列几种:

1) 动词+副词,如:back out;

2) 动词+介词,如:look into;

3) 动词+副词+介词,如:look forward to。构成短语动词的副词和介词都统称为小品词(Particle)。

在句子中充当除谓语以外的句子成分的动词形式叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词分为三种形式:不定式,动名词,和分词(分词包括现在分词和过去分词)。

1)不定式

时态\语态 主动 被动

一般式 to do to be done

完成式 to have done to have been done

2)动名词

时态\语态 主动 被动

一般式 doing being done

完成式 having done having been done

3)分词

时态\语态 主动 被动

一般式 doing being done

完成式 having done having been done

否定形式:not +不定式, not + 动名词, not + 现在分词

一个动词可以在有的场合下及物,有的场合下又不及物。像“kick”这个动词,在“kick the ball”里,“kick”是“及物”动词,“及”什么“物”呢?这里的“物”就是“ball”;但是如果只说“kick”,就是“蹬,跺”,“我跺脚”就只是“I kick”2个词就够了,一个主语一个谓语,我跺脚的动作不涉及宾语,不涉及我跺了什么,就是我跺脚这个动作而已。

这就是一般句子的基本结构,再复杂的长句也只是往这个基本结构里面添加丰富这个基本结构的修饰性的内容了,像定语(修饰名词),状语(修饰形容词和动词)。

以上是最最基本的句子结构了,别的一些像祈使句啊倒装句啊强调句啊什么的,还有各种从句,都是在这个基本结构上稍稍变化而来,先把这个句子的基本结构掌握透彻,这些别的问题自然迎刃而解的。

情态动词是一种本身有一定的词义,但要与动词原形及其被动语态一起使用,给谓语动词增添情态色彩,表示说话人对有关行为或事物的态度和看法,认为其可能、应该或必要等。情态动词后面加动词原形。

情态动词有四类:

①只做情态动词:must,can(could),may(might)……

②可做情态动词又可做实义动词:need,dare

③具有情态动词特征:have(had,has) to,used to

④情态动词表猜测:一肯一否三不定(must一肯,must not一否,can,could,would三不定。)  注:mustn't代表强烈禁止

有几个及物动词可以和许多名词一道使用表示动作,这类动词称为虚意动词(Delexical Verbs),最常见的是以下几个:

have可以跟:

bath , bathe , celebration , chat ,conversation ,cry ,dance ,discussion ,dislike, dispute 等.

give可以跟:

account ,advice, analysis, answer ,approval ,beating, blow , chuckle, clean ,consent 等.

take可以跟:

Action , bath , break , care , chance, charge , control,effect ,examination , exercise 等.

make可以跟:

advance , answer, apology , appeal , appearance, arrangements,arrest ,appointment , attack 等. [3]

时态是英语谓语动词的一种形式,表示动作发生的时间和所处的状态.英语中的时态是通过动词形式本身的变化来实现的.英语有16种时态,但中学阶段较常用的有十种:一般现在时,一般过去时,一般将来时,过去将来时,现在进行时,过去进行时,将来进行时,过去完成时,现 在完成时和现 在完成进行时.

1) 如果从句所叙述的为真理或不变的事实,则永远用现 在时。

At that time,people did not know that the earth moves.

He told me last week that he is eighteen.

2)宾语从句中的助动词ought,need,must,dare 时态是不变的。

He thought that I need not tell you the truth.

时间状语

一般现在时 every …,sometimes, at+时间,on+时间,today,now

一般过去时 yesterday,last+时间,时间+ago,the other day,in+过去的时间,just now

一般将来时 next+时间,tomorrow,in+将来的时间,

现在完成时for,since,so far,ever,never,just,yet,till/until,up to now,in past+时间,already,recently

过去完成时 before,by,until,when,after,once,as soon as

过去进行时this morning,the whole morning,all day,yesterday,from+时间 to+时间 last +时间… when,while

将来进行时 soon,tomorrow,this evening,on+时间,by this time,in+将来的时间,tomorrow evening,this coming Sunday

1) 表示经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频度的时间状语连用。

时间状语:every…,sometimes, at…,on Sunday,always,every day,usually,seldom

I leave home for school at 7 every morning.

2) 在时间和条件状语中代替将来、表示按规定将要发生的事情(动作)状态和感觉的动作

If you come this afternoon,we will have a meeting.

3) 表示格言或警句中。

Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。

注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。

例:Columbus proved that the earth is round..

4) 现 在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。

I don't want so much.

Ann Wang writes good English but does not speak well.

比较:Now I put the sugar in the cup.

I am doing my homework now.

第一句用一般现在时,用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作,表示言行的瞬间动作。再如:Now watch me,I switch on the current and stand back. 第二句中的now是进行时的标志,表示正在进行的动作的客观状况,所以后句用现在进行时。

1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。

时间状语有:yesterday,last week,an hour ago,the other day,in 1982等。

Where did you go just now

2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。

When I was a child,I often played football in the street.

Whenever the Browns went during their visit,they were given a warm welcome.

3)句型:

It is time for sb. to do sth "到……时间了" "该……了"

It is time sb. did sth. "时间已迟了" "早该……了"

It is time for you to go to bed. 你该睡觉了。

It is time you went to bed. 你早该睡觉了。

would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事

I'd rather you came tomorrow. 我宁愿你明天早上来。

4) wish,wonder,think,hope 等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等。

I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些。

比较:

一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在。

Christine was an invalid all her life.

(含义:她已不在人间。)

Christine has been an invalid all her life.

(含义:她现 在还活着)

Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years.

(含义:达比太太已不再住在肯塔基州。)

Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years.

(含义:现 在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去)

注意:用过去时表示现 在,表示委婉语气。

1)动词want,hope,wonder,think,intend 等。

Did you want anything else

I wondered if you could help me.

2)情态动词 could,would.

Could you lend me your bike?

used to / be used to

used to + do:"过去常常"表示过去习惯性的动作或状态,但如今已不存在。

Mother used not to be so forgetful.

be used to + doing:对……已感到习惯,或"习惯于",to是介词,后需加名词或动名词。

He is used to a vegetarian diet.

Scarf is used to taking a walk.(现 在习惯于散步)

1) shall用于第一人称,常被will 所代替。

will 在陈述句中用于各人称,在争求意见时常用于第二人称。

Which paragraph shall I read first.

Will you be at home at seven this evening

2) be going +不定式,表示将来。

a.主语的意图,即将做某事。

What are you going to do tomorrow

b. 计划,安排要发生的事。

The play is going to be produced next month。

c. 有迹象要发生的事

Look at the dark clouds,there is going to be a storm.

3) be +不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。

We are to discuss the report next Saturday.

4) be about +不定式,意为马上做某事。

He is about to leave for Beijing.

注意:be about to 不能与tomorrow,next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用。

be going to / will

用于条件句时, be going to 表将来

will 表意愿

If you are going to make a journey,you'd better get ready for it as soon as possible.

Now if you will take off your clothes,we will fit the new clothes on you in front of the mirror.

be to和be going to

be to 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事。

be going to 表示主观的打算或计划。

I am to play football tomorrow afternoon. (客观安排)

I'm going to play football tomorrow afternoon. (主观安排)

一般现在时表将来

1)下列动词:come,go,arrive,leave,start,begin,return的一般现在时表将来。这主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。

The train leaves at six tomorrow morning.

When does the bus start? It starts in ten minutes.

2)倒装句,表示动作正在进行,如:

Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming.

There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing.

3)在时间或条件句中。

When Bill comes (不是will come),ask him to wait for me.

I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there.

4)在动词hope,take care that,make sure that等后。

I hope they have a nice time next week.

Make sure that the windows are closed before you leave the room.

用现在进行时表示将来

意为:"意图"、"打算"、"安排"、常用于人。常用词为 come,go,start,arrive,leave,stay等。

I'm leaving tomorrow.

Are you staying here till next week

现在完成时用来表示之前已发生或完成的动作或状 态,其结果的确和现 在有联系。动作或状态发生在过 去 但它的影响现 在还存在;也可表示持续到现 在的动作或 状态。其构成:have (has) +过去分词。

用于现在完成时的句型

1)It is the first / second time…. that…结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。

It is the first time that I have visited the city.

It is the third time that the boy has been late.

2)This is the… that…结构,that从句要用现在完成时.

This is the best film that I've (ever) seen.

这是我看过的最好的电影。

This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。

3)最基本句型

主语+have/has+(already/just)+动词的过去分词+其他

比较since和for

Since 用来说明动作起始时间,for用来说明动作延续时间长度。

I have lived here for more than twenty years.

I have lived here since I was born..

My aunt has worked in a clinic since 1949.

Some new oilfields have been opened up since 1976.

I have known Xiao Li since she was a little girl.

My brother has been in the Youth League for two years.

I have not heard from my uncle for a long time.

注意:并非有for 作为时间状语的句子都用现在完成时。

I worked here for more than twenty years.

(我现 在已不在这里工作。)

I have worked here for many years.

(现 在我仍在这里工作。)

小窍门:当现在完成时+一段时间,这一结构中,我们用下面的公式转化,很容易就能排除非延续动词在完成时中的误使。

1) (对) Tom has studied Russian for three years.

= Tom began to study Russian three years ago,and is still studying it now.

2) (错) Harry has got married for six years.

= Harry began to get married six years ago,and is still getting married now.

显然,第二句不对,它应改为 Harry got married six years ago. 或 Harry has been married for six years.

since的四种用法

1) since +过去一个时间点 (如具体的年、月、日期、钟点、1980,last month,half past six)。

I have been here since 1989.

2) since +一段时间+ ago

I have been here since five months ago.

3) since +从句

Great changes have taken place since you left.

Considerable time has elapsed since we have been here.

4) It is +一段时间+ since从句

It is two years since I became a postgraduate student.

5)since和for

在现在完成时态,since后面加时间点,for后面加时间段。

延续动词与瞬间动词

1) 用于完成时的区别

延续动词表示经验、经历;瞬间动词表示行为的结 果,不能与表示段的时间状语连用。

He has completed the work. 他已完成了那项工作。(表结果)

I've known him since then. 我从那时起就认识他了。(表经历)

2) 用于till / until从句的差异

延续动词用于肯定句,表示"做……直到……" 瞬间动词用于否定句,表示"到……,才……"

He didn't come back until ten o'clock.

他到10 点才回来。

He slept until ten o'clock.

他一直睡到10点。

1) 概念:表示动作发生在过去,并在过去完成(即是常说的过去的过去)。

用一示意图表示如下:

动作发生

------|----------------|----------|---->

过去的过去 过去 现 在

其基本构成是:had+动词过去分词。

2) 用法

a. 在told,said,knew,heard,thought等动词后的宾语从句。

She said (that) she had never been to Paris.

b.状语从句

在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。

When the police arrived,the thieves had run away.

c. 表示意向的动词,如hope,wish,expect,think,intend,mean,suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…"

We had hoped that you would come,but you didn't.

3) 过去完成时的时间状语before,by,until,when,after,once,as soon as。

He said that he had learned some English before.

By the time he was twelve,Edison had began to make a living by himself.

Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party.

注意: had no … when 还没等…… 就……

had no sooner… than 刚…… 就……

He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it.

1) 构成是由"shall/will + have +过去分词"构成的。

a. 状态完成:表示某事继续到将来某一时为止一直有的状态。

b. 动作完成:表示将来某一时或另一个将来的动作之前,已经完成的动作或已获得的经验。

They will have been married for 20 years by then.

You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow.

现在进行时的基本用法:

a. 表示现 在(指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情。

We are waiting for you.

b. 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。

Mr. Green is writing another novel.

(说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。)

She is learning piano under Mr. Smith.

c. 表示渐变的动词有:get,grow,become,turn,run,go,begin等。

The leaves are turning red.

It's getting warmer and warmer.

d. 与always,constantly,forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。

You are always changing your mind.

1) 事实状态的动词

have,belong,possess,cost,owe,exist,include,contain,matter,weigh,measure,continue

I have two brothers.

This house belongs to my sister.

2) 心理状态的动词

Know,realize,think see,believe,suppose,imagine,agree,recognize,remember,want,need,forget,prefer,mean,understand,love,hate

I need your help.

He loves her very much.

⒊) 瞬间动词

accept,receive,complete,finish,give,allow,decide,refuse.

I accept your advice.

4) 系动词

seem,remain,lie,see,hear,smell,feel,taste,get,become,turn

You seem a little tired.

1) 概念:表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。

2)过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生。

3) 常用的时间状语

this morning,the whole morning,all day yesterday,from nine to ten last evening,when,while

1) 概念:表示将来某时进行的状态或动作,或按预测将来会发生的事情。

She'll be coming soon.

I'll be meeting him sometime in the future.

注意:将来进行时不用于表示"意志",不能说 I'll be having a talk with her.

2)常用的时间状语

Soon,tomorrow,this evening,on Sunday,by this time,tomorrow,in two days,tomorrow evening

By this time tomorrow,I'll be lying on the beach.

一般现在时代替将来时

时间状语从句,条件句中,从句用一般现在时代替将来时

When,while,before,after,till,once,as soon as,so long as,by the time,if,in case (that),unless,even if,whether,the moment,the minute,the day,the year,immediately

He is going to visit her aunt the day he arrives in Beijing. 他一到北京,就去看他姨妈。

一般现在时代替过去时

1)"书上说","报纸上说"等。

The newspaper says that it's going to be cold tomorrow.

报纸上说明天会很冷的。

2) 叙述往事,使其生动。

Napoleon's army now advances and the great battle begins.

一般现在时代替完成时

1) 有些动词用一般现在时代替完成时:

hear,tell,learn,write,understand,forget,know,find,say, remember.

I hear (= have heard) he will go to London.

I forget (=have forgotten) how old he is.

2) 句型 " It is … since…"代替"It has been … since …"

3) It is (= has been) five years since we last met.

一般现在时代替进行时

1) 句型:Here comes… ; There goes…

Look,here comes Mr. Li.

现在进行时代替将来时

1) 表示即将发生的或预定中计划好的活动。

Are you staying with us this weekend? 这周和我们一起度周末吗

We are leaving soon. 我们马上就走。

2) 渐变动词,如:get,run,grow,become,begin及die。

He is dying.

用一般过去时代替完成时

1) 两个动作如按顺序发生,又不强调先后,或用then,and,but 等连词时,多用一般过去时。

When she saw the mouse,she screamed.

My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it.

⒉) 两个动作相继发生,可用一般过去时;如第一个动作需要若干时间完成,用过去完成时。

When I heard the news,I was very excited.

3) 叙述历史事实,可不用过去完成时,而只用一般过去时。

Our teacher told us that Columbus discovered America in 1492.

比较过去时与现在完成时

1)过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现 在的影响,强调的是影响。

2)过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用,或无时间状语。

一般过去时的时间状语:

yesterday,last week,…ago,in1980,in October,just now,具体的时间状语

共同的时间状语:

this morning,tonight,this April,now,once,before,already,recently,lately

现在完成时的时间状语

for,since,so far,ever,never,just,yet, till / until,up to now,in past years,always,

不确定的时间状语

3)现 在完成时可表示持续到现 在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的,

如live,teach,learn,work,study,know.

过去时常用的非持续性动词有come,go,leave,start,die,finish,become,get married等。

举例:

I saw this film yesterday.

(强调看的动作发生过了。)

I have seen this film.

(强调对现 在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了。)

Why did you get up so early?

(强调起床的动作已发生过了。)

Who hasn't handed in his paper?

(强调有卷子,可能为不公平竞争。)

She has returned from Paris.

她已从巴黎回来了。

She returned yesterday.

她是昨天回来了。

He has been in the League for three years.

(在团内的状态可延续)

He has been a League member for three years.

(是团员的状态可持续)

He joined the League three years ago.

(三年 前入团,joined为短暂行为。)

I have finished my homework now.

---Will somebody go and get Dr. White

---He's already been sent for.

句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如 yesterday,last,week,in 1960)时,不能使用现在完成时,要用过去时。

(错)Tom has written a letter to his parents last night.

(对)Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.

语态有两种

主动语态和被动语态。

主语是动作的发出者为主动语态;主语是动作的接受者为被动语态。

1)若宾语补足语是不带to 的不定式,变为被动语态 时,该不定式前要加"to"。此类动词为感官动词。

feel,hear,help,listen to,look at,make,observe,see,notice,watch

The teacher made me go out of the classroom.

--> I was made to go out of the classroom (by the teacher).

We saw him play football on the playground.

--> He was seen to play football on the playground.

2)情态动词+ be +过去分词,构成被动语态。

Coal can be used to produce electricity for agriculture and industry.

let 的用法

1)当let后只有一个单音节动词,变被动语态时,可用不带to 的不定式。

They let the strange go.---> The strange was let go.

2) 若let 后宾补较长时,let 通常不用被动语态,而用allow或permit 代替。

The nurse let me go to see my classmate in the hospital.

----> I was allowed / permitted to see my classmate in the hospital

短语动词的被动语态

短语动词是一个整体,不可丢掉后面的介词或副词。

This is a photo of the power station that has been set up in my hometown.

My sister will be taken care of by Grandma.

Such a thing has never been heard of before..

表示"据说"或"相信" 的词组

believe,consider,declare,expect,feel,report,say,see,suppose,think,understand

It is said that… 据说

It is reported that… 据报道

It is believed that… 大家相信

It is hoped that… 大家希望

It is well known that… 众所周知

It is thought that… 大家认为

It is suggested that… 据建议

It is taken granted that… 被视为当然

It has been decided that… 大家决定

It must be remembered that…务必记住的是

It is said that she will leave for Wuhan on Tuesday.

被动语态的新兴形式

Get+过去分词也可以构成被动语态,用这种结构的句子侧重于动作的结果而不是动作本身。如: The man got hurt on his way home. 那个男人在回家的路上受伤了。 How did the glass get broken? 杯子怎么破了?

著名学者周海中教授在论文《Get-Passive研究》中指出:Get+过去分词的被动语态是一种新兴的被动语态形式;相对来说它的使用还没有Be+过去分词构成的被动语态那么广泛,一般限于口语和非正式书面语;但它却有着用得愈来愈多的趋势,是一种生气蓬勃的语言现象。 [4]

不用被动语态的情况

1) 不及物动词或动词短语无被动语态:

appear,die disappear,end (vi. 结束),fail,happen,last,lie,remain,sit,spread,stand

break out,come true,fall asleep,keep silence,lose heart,take place.

After the fire,very little remained of my house.

比较:rise,fall,happen是不及物动词;raise,seat是及物动词。

(错) The price has been risen.

(对) The price has risen.

(错) The accident was happened last week.

(对) The accident happened last week.

要想正确地使用被动语态,就须注意哪些动词是及物的,哪些是不及物的。特别是一词多义的动词往往有两种用法。解决这一问题唯有在学习过程中多留意积累,勤加练习。

2) 不能用于被动语态的及物动词或动词短语:

fit,have,hold,marry,own,wish,cost,notice,watch agree with,arrive at / in,shake hands with,succeed in,suffer from,happen to,take part in,walk into,belong to

This key just fits the lock.

Your story agrees with what had already been heard.

3) 系动词无被动语态:

appear,be become,fall,feel,get,grow,keep,look,remain,seem,smell,sound,stay,taste,turn

It sounds good.

4) 带同源宾语的及物动词,反身代词,相互代词,不能用于被动语态:

die,death,dream,live,life

She dreamed a bad dream last night.

5) 当宾语是不定式时,很少用于被动语态。

(对) She likes to swim.

(错) To swim is liked by her.

主动形式表示被动意义

1)wash,clean,cook,iron,look,cut,sell,read,wear,feel,draw,write,sell,drive…

The book sells well. 这本书销路好。

This knife cuts easily. 这刀子很好用。

2)blame,let(出租),remain,keep,rent,build

I was to blame for the accident.

Much work remains.

3) 在need,require,want,worth (形容词),deserve后的动名词必须用主动形式。

The door needs repairing.= The door needs to be repaired.

This room needs cleaning. 这房间应该打扫一下。

This book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。

4) 特殊结构:make sb. heard / understood (使别人能听见/理解自己),have sth. done (要某人做某事)。

被动形式表示主动意义

be determined,be pleased,be graduated (from),be finished,be prepared (for),be occupied (in),get marries

He is graduated from a famous university.

他毕业于一所有名的大学。

注意:表示同某人结婚,用marry sb. 或get married to sb. 都可。

He married a rich girl.

He got married to a rich girl.

need/want/require/worth

注意:当 need,want,require,worth(形容词)后面接doing也可以表示被动。

Your hair wants cutting. 你的头发该理了。

The floor requires washing. 地板需要冲洗。

The book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。

被动语态更多介绍

一、 被动语态的用法:

⒈一般现在时的被动语态构成:is / am / are + 及物动词的过去分词

Our classroom is cleaned everyday.

I am asked to study hard.

Knives are used for cutting things.

⒉一般过去时的被动语态构成:was / were + 及物动词的过去分词

A new shop was built last year.

Dinosaur eggs were laid long long ago.

⒊现在完成时的被动语态构成:has / have + been + 及物动词的过去分词

This book has been translated into many languages.

Many man-made satellites have been sent up into space by many countries.

⒋一般将来时的被动语态构成:will+ be + 及物动词的过去分词

A new hospital will be built in our city.

Many more trees will be planted next year.

⒌含有情态动词的被动语态构成:情态动词+ be + 及物动词的过去分词

Young trees must be watered often.

Your mistakes should be corrected right now.

The door may be locked inside.

Your homework can be handed in tomorrow.

⒍现在进行时的被动语态构成:am / is / are + being + 及物动词的过去分词

Uncle Wang is mending my bike now.→

My bike is being repaired by Tom now.

They are planting trees over there. →

Trees are being planted over there by them.

⒎不定式的被动语态:to + be + 及物动词的过去分词

There are two books to be read. →

There are twenty more trees to be planted.

二、 怎样把主动语态改成被动语态?

把主动语态改为被动语态非常简单,可以遵循以下几个步骤:

⒈先找出谓语动词;

⒉再找出谓语动词后的宾语;

⒊把宾语用作被动语态中的主语;

⒋注意人称、时态和数的变化。

例:1. Bruce writes a letter every week. →A letter is written by Bruce every week.

⒉Li Lei mended the broken bike this morning.→The broken bike was mended by Li Lei this morning.

⒊He has written two novels so far.→Two novels have been written by him so far.

⒋They will plant ten trees tomorrow.→Ten trees will be planted by them tomorrow.

⒌Lucy is writing a letter now.→A letter is being written by Lucy now.

⒍You must lock the door when you leave.→the door must be locked when you leave.

三、 使用被动语态应注意的几个问题:

⒈不及物动词无被动语态。

What will happen in 100 years

The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago.

⒉有些动词用主动形式表示被动意义。

This pen writes well.

This new book sells well.

⒊感官动词或使役动词使用省略to的动词不定式,主动语态中不带to ,但变为被动语态时,须加上to。

例:make somebody do something→somebody+ be +made to do something

see somebody do something→somebody +be +seen to do something

A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.→My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by.

The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.

⒋如果是接双宾语的动词改为被动语态时,直接宾语(物)作主语,那么动词后要用介词,这个介词是由与其搭配的动词决定。

He gave me a book.→A book was given to me by him.

He showed me a ticket.→A ticket was shown to me by him.

My father bought me a new bike. →A new bike was bought for me by my father.

⒌一些动词短语用于被动语态时,动词短语应当看作一个整体,而不能丢掉其中的介词或副词。

We can’t laugh at him. →He can’t be laughed at by us.

He listens to the radio every day. →The radio is listened to by him every day.

动词的分类

动词分为五种:及物动词,不及物动词,连系动词,助动词和情态动词

⒈及物动词:是指后面需要使用宾语是其意义完整的动词.

如:那条狗使这个孩子高兴起来。That dog makes the boy happy.

⒉不及物动词:是指后面不需要宾语而意义完整的动词

如:我住在北京. I live in Beijing.

⒊连系动词:一个表示谓语关系的动词,后面必须接表语(通常为名词或形容词)一起使用。

最主要的联系动词是"be (am is are)". 其他常用的连系动词还有:seem 似乎 look 看起来 appear 好象 become 变成 keep 保持 get (成为)

如:他是一位好教师。He is a good teacher.

这花很好闻。The flower smells good.

⒋助动词:是指用来帮助主要动词完成语法功能的动词。这类动词本身没有意义,不能单独作谓语。他们可以在句中与实义动词一起帮助构成疑问句,否定句,进行时态,完成时态和将来时态。

助动词有:

Be (构成进行时) 如:我正在读书。I am reading a book.

Do (构成疑问句,否定句) 如:你喜欢苹果吗?不,我不喜欢。Do you like apple? No,I don’t.

Have (构成完成时态) 如:我明天来看你。I will come to se you tomorrow.

⒌情态动词:是指表示说话人的语气或者情态的动词。情态动词没有人称和数的变化,词义不完全 在句中不能单独作谓语,必须与后面的动词原形合用。

我们常用的情态动词有:

Can (能,会) 如:I can swim. 我会游泳。

May (可以) 如:You may go now. 你现在可以走了。

Must (必须) 如:You must do your homework. 你必须写作业。

Need (需要) 如:He needs our help. 他需要我们的帮助。

二、动词的基本形式

绝大多数动词都有五种基本形式:动词原形、一般现 在是第三人称单数、过去时、过去分词和现 在分词。

A、 第三人称单数形式的构成

一般现在时主语是第三人称单数,谓语动词后要加s或es,其变化规则与名词变复数的方法大体相同:

⒈一般情况下只在动词后加s,如work-works,write-writes。

⒉以s,x,sh,ch结尾的动词,后加es,如guess-guesses,mix-mix,finish-finishes,catch-catches。

⒊以辅音字母加y结尾的动词,改y为i,如study-studies。

注:不规则变化的有have-has,be-are,go-goes,do-does等。

B、 现在分词的构成

⒈一般情况下在动词后加ing,如study-studying,work-working。

⒉以不发音的字母e结尾的动词,去“e”再加“ing”,如write-writing,move-moving。

⒊以一个元音字母和一个辅音结尾的重读音节结尾的动词,要双写最后字母再加“ing”,如get-getting,begin-beginning。

⒋以ie结尾的动词,一般将ie改为y,再加ing,如lie-lying,die-dying,tie-tying。

注:以I结尾的动词,尾音节重读时,双写I,如control-controlling;尾音节不重读时,双不双写都可以,如 travel-traveling(美)/travelling(英)。

C、过去式的构成

⒈一般情况直接加ed,如ask-asked,work-worked。

⒉以不发音的e结尾,只加d,如love-loved,dance-danced。

⒊以辅音字母加y结尾,把y改i,如try-tried,study-studied。

⒋以一个元音字母和一个辅音结尾的重读音节结尾的动词,先双末尾一个字母,再加ed,如stop-stopped,permit-permitted

是用来表示主语做什么(行为动词)或表示主语是什么或怎么样(状态动词)的词。

例如:

The boy runs fast.(这个男孩跑得快。)runs表示主语的行为

He is a boy.(他是个男孩。)is与后面的表语a boy表示主语的状态

动词可以按照含义及它们在句中的作用分成四类,即行为动词(也称实义动词)、连系动词、助动词和情态动词。

(一)行为动词

行为动词(实义动词)是表示行为、动作或状态的词。它的词义完整,可以单独作谓语。例如:

I live in Beijing with my mother.(我和我妈妈住在北京。)live,住

It has a round face.(它有一张圆脸。)has,有

(二)连系动词

连系动词是表示主语“是什么”或“怎么样”的词,它虽有词义,但不完整,所以不能单独作谓语,必须跟表语一起构成合成谓语,例如:

We are in Grade Two this year.(今 年我们在两年级。)are,是

are 这个词的词义“是”在句子中常常不译出。

连系动词可具体分为三类:

⒈表示“是”的动词be。这个词在不同的主语后面和不同的时态中有不同的形式,is,am,are,was,were,have/has been等要特别予以注意。例如:

He is a teacher.(他是个教师。)

He was a soldier two years ago.(两年前他是个士兵。)

We are Chinese.(我们是中国人。)

⒉感官动词,表示“感觉”的词,如look(看起来),feel(觉得,摸起来),smell(闻起来),sound(听起来),taste(尝起来)等,例如:

She looked tired.(她看上去很疲劳。)

I feel ill.(我觉得不舒服。)

Cotton feels soft.(棉花摸起来很软。)

The story sounds interesting.(这个故事听起来很有趣。)

The flowers smell sweet.(这些花闻起来很香。)

The mixture tasted horrible.(这药水太难喝了。)

⒊表示“变”、“变成”的意思的词,如become,get,grow,turn,都解释为“变”、“变得”,例如:

She became a college student.(她成了一名大学生。)

He feels sick. His face turns white.(他感到不舒服,他的脸色变苍白了。)

The weather gets warmer and the days get longer when spring comes.(春天来了,天气变得暖和些了,白天也变得较长些了。)

He grew old.(他老了。)

[难点解释]

注意区别以下一些动词的用法,它们既可以作为行为动词,又可以作为连系动词。

⒈look看;看起来

He is looking at the picture.(他正在看这图片。)行为动词

It looks beautiful.(它看上去很美丽。)连系动词

⒉feel摸;感觉

1)I felt someone touch my arm.(我感到有人碰我的手臂。)行为动词

Are you felling better today than before?(你今天比以前感到好些了吗?)连系动词

⒊smell嗅;闻起来

My little brother likes to smell the apple before he eats it.(我的小弟弟喜欢在吃苹果前闻一闻。)行为动词

Great! The flowers smell nice.(这些花闻起来多香啊!)连系动词

⒋sound弄响,发音;听起来

The letter “h” in hour is not sounded.(在hour这个词中字母h是不发音的。)行为动词

The gun sounded much closer.(枪声听起来更近了。)连系动词

⒌taste辨味;尝起来

Please taste the soup.(请尝一口汤。)行为动词

The soup tastes terrible.(这汤尝起来味道太差了。)连系动词

⒍get得到,获得;变

There are some bananas on the table. Each of you can get one.(桌上有些香蕉,你们每个人可以拿一个。)行为动词

⒎grow生长,种植;变

Do you grow rice in your country?(你们的国家种水稻吗?)行为动词

It’s too late. It’s growing dark.(太迟了,天渐渐变暗了。)连系动词

⒏turn转动,翻动,使变得;变

The earth turns around the sun.(地球绕着太阳转。)行为动词

When spring comes,the trees turn green and the flowers come out.(春天来了,树叶变经绿了,花儿开了。)连系动词

上述句子中的动词如grow、get、turn等,既可以作连系动词,又可以作行为动词。如何来辨别它们呢?有一个最简便的方法,即用连系动词be替换句子中的这些动词,句子仍然成立就是连系动词;反之,不能替换的,就是行为动词。例如:

The trees turn/are green when spring comes.(春天来临,树叶变绿。)

The earth turns around the sun.(地球绕着太阳转。)

这第二句句子中的turn是行为动词,意为“转动”。无法以is替换。

(三)助动词

这类词本身无词义,不能单独作谓语,只能与主要动词一起构成谓语,表示不同的时态、语态、表示句子的否定和疑问,例如:

He does not speak English well.(他英语讲得不好。)

句中的does是助动词,既表示一般现在时,又与not一起构成否定形式。

A dog is running after a cat.(一条狗正在追逐一只猫。)

句中的is 是助动词,和run的现在分词一起构成现在进行时。

Did he have any milk and bread for his breakfast(他早餐喝牛奶、吃面包吗?)

句中的did是助动词,既表示一般过去时,又和动词have一起构成疑问。

(四)情态动词

这类词本身虽有意义,但不完整。它们表示说话人的能力、说话人的语气或情态,如“可能”、“应当”等。这类动词有can,may,must,need,dare,could,might等。它们不能单独作谓语,必须与行为动词(原形)一起作谓语,表示完整的意思,例如:

后面必须跟宾语,意思才完整,例如:

Give me some ink,please.(请给我一些墨水。)

If you have any questions,you can put your hands up.(如果你们有问题,你们可以举手,。)

及物动词简写为“vt." [5]

后面不能跟宾语,意思已完整。不及物动词有时可以加上副词或介词,构成短语动词,相当于一个及物动词。例如:

He works hard.(他工作努力。)

Jack runs faster than Mike.(杰克跑步比迈克要快些。)

Please look at the blackboard and listen to me.(请看黑板,听我说。)

He got an “A” this time because he went over his lessons carefully.(这次他得了个“A”,因为他仔细地复习了功课。)

[难点解释]

⒈许多动词可用作及物动词,也可用作不及物动词,他阅读中必须仔细体会和区别,例如:

Who is going to speak at the meeting?(谁打算在会上发言?)speak,不及物动词

Few people outside China speak Chinese.(在中国外很少人讲汉语。)speak,及物动词

⒉要特别注意有些动词英汉之间的差异。某些词在英语中是不及物的,而在汉语中却是及物的。有时则相反。例如:

He is waiting for you.(他在等你。)

英语wait为不及物动词,汉语“等”为及物动词。

Serve the people.(为人民服务。)

英语serve为及物动词,汉语“服务”为不及物动词。

表示一个动作可以持续一段时间或更长时间。常见的有study,play,do,read,learn,drive,write,clean,

不及物动词简写为"vi." [6]

类别

说明

例句

行为动词

Action Verbs

表示动作或状态,在句中能独立作谓语。

She has a new friend from Australia.
  He takes the train every day.
  Heleavesfor school at around seven.

连系动词

Link Verbs

不能独立作谓语,必须与表语一起构成谓语。

Heispopular in school.
  Twins usuallylookthe same.
  Treesturngreen in spring.

助动词

Auxiliary Verbs

不能独立作谓语,只能作主要动词一起构成谓语,表示否定、
  疑问、时态或其他语法形式。

Idon'twant to go for adrive.(否定)
  Weareplaying basketball.(进行时态)
  Doyou speak a little tomatoes ?(疑问)

情态动词

Modality Verbs

不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成谓语,表示说话人
  的语气情态。情态动词没有人称和数量的变化。

Shecanspeak a little English.
  Youshoulddrink more water. [2]


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